Agaciro k’imiti y’ibinyabuzima kari hasi kandi ibyago ni byinshi. Iterambere ryibimera nubukorikori birashobora gufasha gukemura ibibazo byinganda

Ati: “Muri rusange, hari ubwoko 12,807 bw’ibikoresho by’imiti by’Ubushinwa n’ubwoko 1.581 bw’imiti y’inyamaswa, bingana na 12%. Muri ubwo buryo, amoko 161 y’inyamaswa zo mu gasozi arageramiwe. Muri byo, ihembe ry'inkwavu, amagufwa y'ingwe, imitsi hamwe n'ifu y'idubu bifatwa nk'ibikoresho bidasanzwe bivura inyamaswa zo mu gasozi. ” Umubare w'inyamaswa zimwe na zimwe ziri mu kaga, nka pangoline, ingwe n'ingwe, wagabanutse cyane bitewe no gukenera imiti y’imiti, nk'uko byatangajwe na Dr. Sun Quanhui, umuhanga mu ishyirahamwe rirengera inyamaswa ku isi, mu nama nyunguranabitekerezo ya 2020 y’ubuvuzi ku Bumuntu ”ku ya 26 Ugushyingo.

Mu myaka yashize, bitewe n’ubucuruzi mpuzamahanga n’inyungu z’ubucuruzi, inyamaswa zo mu gasozi zidasanzwe kandi ziri mu kaga muri rusange zihura n’igitutu kinini cyo kubaho, kandi gukenera cyane imiti gakondo ni imwe mu mpamvu zingenzi zazimye.

Sun yagize ati: "Ingaruka z’imiti y’inyamaswa zo mu gasozi zaravuzwe cyane." Mu bihe byashize, inyamaswa zo mu gasozi ntizari zoroshye kubona, bityo ibikoresho by'imiti ntibyari bike, ariko ntibisobanuye ko imiti yabyo yari amarozi. Bimwe mubinyoma byubucuruzi bikunze gukoresha ubuke bwimiti yinyamanswa nkibicuruzwa, bikayobya abaguzi kugura ibicuruzwa bifitanye isano, ibyo bikaba bidashimangira gusa guhiga no gufata iminyago y’inyamaswa zo mu gasozi, ahubwo binatuma ibyifuzo by’inyamaswa zo mu gasozi bivura.

Nk’uko iyi raporo ibigaragaza, ibikoresho by’imiti y’Abashinwa birimo ibyatsi, imiti y’amabuye y’imiti n’imiti y’inyamaswa, muri byo hakaba harimo imiti y’ibimera igera kuri 80 ku ijana, bivuze ko ingaruka nyinshi z’imiti y’ibinyabuzima zishobora gusimburwa n’imiti itandukanye y’ibishinwa. Mu bihe bya kera, imiti y’inyamaswa zo mu gasozi ntizari zoroshye kuboneka, ku buryo zitakoreshwaga cyane cyangwa ngo zishyirwe mu bintu byinshi bisanzwe. Imyizerere yabantu benshi kubijyanye nubuvuzi bwinyamanswa ituruka ku myumvire mibi ya "ubuke ni iyagaciro" ko imiti idakunze kubaho, niko ikora neza kandi ifite agaciro.

Kubera iyi mitekerereze y’abaguzi, abantu baracyafite ubushake bwo kwishyura byinshi kubicuruzwa by’inyamanswa biva ku gasozi kuko bizera ko biruta inyamaswa zororerwa, rimwe na rimwe iyo inyamaswa zororerwa zimaze kuba ku isoko hagamijwe imiti. Kubwibyo, guteza imbere uruganda rw’ubuhinzi bw’ibinyabuzima rwa farumasi ntirurinda rwose amoko yangiritse kandi bizarushaho kwiyongera ku nyamaswa. Gusa mugabanye ibyifuzo byo kurya inyamanswa gusa dushobora gutanga uburinzi bwiza kubinyabuzima byangirika.

Ubushinwa buri gihe bwahaye agaciro gakomeye kurinda inyamaswa zo mu gasozi zangirika. Ku rutonde rwibikoresho by’imiti yo mu gasozi birindwa n’ibanze by’igihugu, ubwoko 18 bw’inyamaswa z’imiti zirinzwe n’ibanze by’igihugu zashyizwe ku rutonde neza, kandi zigabanijwemo ibikoresho by’imiti byo mu cyiciro cya mbere n’icyiciro cya kabiri. Ku bwoko butandukanye bw’imiti y’inyamaswa zo mu gasozi, harateganijwe kandi ingamba zo gukoresha no gukingira ibikoresho by’imiti byo mu cyiciro cya mbere n’icyiciro cya kabiri.

Nko mu 1993, Ubushinwa bwabujije ubucuruzi n’imiti gukoresha amahembe y’inkwavu n’amagufwa y’ingwe, kandi bukuraho imiti ijyanye na farumasi. Umuyoboro w'idubu wakuwe muri farumasi mu 2006, pangoline ikurwa mu gitabo giheruka gusohoka mu 2020. Nyuma ya COVID-19, Kongere y’igihugu (NPC) yafashe icyemezo cyo kuvugurura itegeko rirengera inyamaswa zo muri Repubulika y’Ubushinwa. (PRC) ku nshuro ya kabiri. Usibye kubuza kurya inyamaswa zo mu gasozi, bizashimangira gukumira icyorezo no kugenzura amategeko agenga inganda z’imiti y’ibinyabuzima.

Naho ku masosiyete yimiti, nta nyungu yo gukora no kugurisha imiti nibicuruzwa byubuzima birimo ibikomoka ku nyamaswa zangirika. Mbere ya byose, hari impaka zikomeye zijyanye no gukoresha inyamanswa ziri mu kaga nk'imiti. Icya kabiri, kutagerwaho kugera kubikoresho fatizo biganisha ku bwiza budahwitse bwibikoresho fatizo; Icya gatatu, biragoye kugera kumusaruro usanzwe; Icya kane, gukoresha antibiyotike nindi miti mugikorwa cyo guhinga bituma bigora kwemeza ubwiza bwibikoresho fatizo by’ibinyabuzima byangiritse. Ibi byose bizana ibyago byinshi kumasoko yibigo bifitanye isano.

Raporo “Ingaruka zo Kureka Ibinyabuzima byangirika ku masosiyete” yasohowe na Sosiyete mpuzamahanga ishinzwe kurengera inyamaswa na Pricewaterhousecoopers, igisubizo gishoboka ni uko ibigo bishobora guteza imbere byimazeyo no gucukumbura ibicuruzwa by’ibimera n’ubukorikori kugira ngo bisimbuze ibikomoka ku gasozi byangiritse. Ibi ntibigabanya cyane ingaruka zubucuruzi bwikigo, ahubwo binatuma imikorere yikigo iramba. Kugeza ubu, abasimbuye inyamaswa zo mu gasozi ziri mu kaga kugira ngo bakoreshwe mu buvuzi, nk'amagufwa y'ingwe y'ingwe, imitsi ya artile hamwe n'idubu y'idubu, byashyizwe ku isoko cyangwa birimo gukorerwa ibizamini byo kwa muganga.

Umuyoboro w'idubu ni kimwe mu bimera bikoreshwa cyane mu nyamaswa zo mu gasozi. Nyamara, ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko ibimera bitandukanye byabashinwa bishobora gusimbuza amara. Ni inzira byanze bikunze mu iterambere rya kazoza ka farumasi kureka inyamaswa zo mu gasozi no gucukumbura cyane imiti y'ibyatsi n'ibicuruzwa bya sintetike. Ibigo bireba bigomba kubahiriza icyerekezo cya politiki y’igihugu cyo kurinda inyamaswa zo mu gasozi zifite imiti yangiritse, kugabanya kwishingikiriza ku nyamaswa zo mu gasozi zibangamiwe n’imiti, no gukomeza kuzamura ubushobozi bw’iterambere rirambye mu gihe zirinda inyamaswa zo mu gasozi zangirika binyuze mu guhindura inganda no guhanga udushya mu ikoranabuhanga.


Igihe cyo kohereza: Nyakanga-27-2021